Kidney stones are composed of crystals (usually calcium) that separate from the urine within the urinary tract; this is one of the most painful urological disorders. Typically, humans contain a chemical that helps prevent this but for some reason does not break down crystals. Crystals should remain small enough to pass through the urinary tract without issue; however, when crystals become larger, rather big, they can cause abdominal or back pain as it passes through the urinary tract. This is the only way of removing kidney stones, and the help of a physician is not usually needed.
Drinking fluids will help produce more urine which will help aid in the passing of the stones. Two to three quarts of water is suggested in order to pass kidney stones. Individuals who have prior heart, liver or kidney ailments, or under fluid restrictions, are advised to speak with their physicians.
Foods with oxalates should be avoided as this encourages stone formation. Some foods include chocolate, beets, spinach, grapes and sweet potatoes.
Pain medication can help during the passing of kidney stones. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs) like aspirin or ibuprofen can be used if minor or mild pain occurs. If pain persists or increases, stronger pain medication may be obtained through a prescription from your physician.
Your physician will ask you to collect urine and kidney stones for a period of time in order to determine the type of stones and their causes. This will help prevent kidney stones in the future.
If your kidney stones are too large to pass or an infection becomes evident, your doctor may suggest medical treatment. Here are descriptions of the procedures available:
Another option, rarely used, is open surgery.
For more on kidney stones and prevention, follow the link below: